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Difference between Hymenolepis nana and diminuta

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HYMENOLEPIS NANA. Synonyms: Tœnia murina, Tœnia nana, Tœnia œgyptica; Diplacanthus manus, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis murina. The dwarf tapeworm was found in man for the first time by Bilharz, in Cairo, Egypt, in 1851. He recovered a countless number of them at a postmortem on a boy who had died of meningitis Hymenolepiasis is caused by two cestodes (tapeworm) species, Hymenolepis nana (the dwarf tapeworm, adults measuring 15 to 40 mm in length) and Hymenolepis diminuta (rat tapeworm, adults measuring 20 to 60 cm in length). Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestode of rodents infrequently seen in humans and frequently found in rodents

Morphology of Hymenolepis spp. H. nana- The dwarf tapeworm, is the smallest cestode with an adult length of 15-44mm. H. diminuta- The rat tapeworm is a cestode of mainly rodents, adult length of 20-60 cm. EGGS. H. diminuta Nov 21, 2015 - Hymenolepis diminuta vs. H.nana. Morphology is very simila Hymenolepis nana ( Bilharz , 1851) Ransom , 1901 [1] Dwarf tapeworm ( Hymenolepis nana , also known as Rodentolepis nana , Vampirolepis nana , Hymenolepis fraterna , and Taenia nana ) is a cosmopolitan species though most common in temperate zones, and is one of the most common cestodes (a type of intestinal worm or helminth ) infecting humans.

Start studying Cestodes - Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools For its part Hymenolepis nana, is the tapeworm that causes infections to humans with higher incidence. H. diminuta and H. Nana are two zoonotic tapered species, that is, species belonging to a group of parasitic worms with the capacity to produce diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans Hymenolepis nana / Hymenolepis diminuta Ciclo de vida Videos Morfología Características del adulto: Proglótide grávido Taxonomía Hymenolepis diminuta Morfología Características del Adulto: Proglótide maduro Forma globular Rostelo con una hilera de ganchos Prensencia de cuatr

Hymenolepis nana es un parasito de la clase de los cestodos (similar a la tenia) es uno de los cestodos común la mayoría de los seres humanos en el mundo, especialmente entre los niños. Se puede encontrar en todo el mundo, pero suele ser más común en las zonas templadas. Se puede adquirir mediante infección de huevos en heces de humanos y. caused by rodent cestodes called Hymenolepis (H) nana and Hymenolepis diminuta. It is very common in developing countries with hot, temperate and dry climates. The life cycle of H. nana does not require intermediate hosts, and its usual transmission is fecal-oral (by ingestion of infective eggs); and infection of H. diminuta occurs through ingestion o Hymenolepis nana can be differentiated from another species of rodent tapeworm, H. diminuta, by the fact that H. nana has rostellar hooks and eggs with polar filaments. However, H. diminuta requires an intermediate arthropod host, so it is rarely found in contemporary mouse colonies Parasitol Res DOI 10.1007/s00436-016-5210-3 ORIGINAL PAPER Differential diagnosis and molecular characterization of Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) based on nuclear rDNA ITS2 gene marker Sunil Sharma 1 & Damanbha Lyngdoh 1 & Bishnupada Roy 1 & Veena Tandon 1,2 Received: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about Hymenolepis Nana. Morphology of Hymenolepis Nana: H. nana (Fig. 107.21) is a cosmopolitan parasite. It is small and measures up to 25-40 mm in length by one mm in diameter. Its scolex (Fig. 107.22) is minute, rhomboidal and has four suckers and a short rectractile rostellum armed [

Parasitology Class ID Pictures flashcards | Quizlet

Hymenolepis Nana and Hymenolepis Diminuta, With Report of

CDC - DPDx - Hymenolepiasi

The principal difference lies in the rate of development, namely, a more rapid early growth with the resulting greater total size and an earlier appearance of the tail in H. diminuta, and a more rapid but more variable morphogenesis morphogenesis Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details in H. nana. Factors responsible for the. 31 HYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTA (RAT TAPEWORM) The differences between H. nana & H. diminuta H. nana H. diminuta Disease Hymenolepiasis nana Hymenolepiasis diminuta Distribution Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan Adult Size 1-3 cm 30-60 cm Scolex Rostellum with hooks Rostellum without hooks Mature segment Testes and ovary close together in th Differences in biological characteristics of two strains of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta. and that the difference between the parasite strains had a complex genetic basis. Some Japanese parasites of the early isolated generations failed to produce normal eggs, but the proportion of these decreased in later generations.. HIMENOLEPÍASE - HYMENOLEPIS NANA E HYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTA (TÊNIA ANÃ) - PARASITOLOGIA| INFECTOLOGIAkleversondelvecchi100@gmail.comSe algum de vocês tem falta d.. LEE, BUEDING, AND SCHILLER-5-HT IN HYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTA AND H. NANA 259 FIGURES 1-5. Localization of 5-HT in H. diminuta. 1. Innervation of the scolex and germinative area. Whole mount. 2. Transverse section showing the transverse commissure (A) posed between 2 suckers. 3. Innervation of the germinative area when the 5-HT concentration was.

Dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana, previously known as Vampirolepis nana, Hymenolepis fraterna, and Taenia nana) is a cosmopolitan species though most common in temperate zones, and is one of the most common cestodes (a type of intestinal worm or helminth) infecting humans, especially children.. Morphology . As its name implies (Greek: nanos - dwarf), it is a small species, seldom exceeding. Hymenolepis nana, like all tapeworms, contain both male and female reproductive structures in each proglottid (Roberts and Janovy, 2000). This means that the dwarf tapeworm like other tapeworms is hermaphroditic (Cameron, 1956). Each segment contains 3 testes and a single ovary. When a proglottid becomes old and unable to absorb any more. -Tapeworms- Hymenolepis nana The 'Dwarf' Tapeworm 9. Difference between Eggs Taenia Hymenolepis 16. Hymenolepis diminuta life cycle Recommended Customer Segments - Barnet Council Noel Hatch FRSA. Fs discl interim & segment reporting case study Peculiar Labstery.

Morphology of Hymenolepis

  1. uta is a cestode which sometimes causes infection in humans.Human infection results from eating such foods as dried fruits and precooked breakfast cereals in which the infected grain insects, themselves infected from eating rat or mouse droppings, are present. Some symptoms of infestation in humans include, enteritis, anorexia.
  2. uta were significantly higher, which was 31.6-31.7% (pnad5), 16.1-17.6% (rrnS), and 26.5-27.1% (atp6)
  3. uta (rat tapeworm) is widespread worldwide, though in comparison to H. nana it is less frequent in humans (accidental host). The definite hosts, as well as the natural reservoir of H. di
  4. uta, with a size range of 30 to 50 µm. On the inner membrane are two poles, from which 4-8 polar filaments spread out between the two membranes. The oncosphere has six hooks
  5. Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845) Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original.
  6. uta are commonly maintained in laboratory rodents and used in many experimental model systems of tapeworms infections. In the present work, the length of worm ofHymenolepis nana and H. di
  7. Hymenolepis nana. Hymenolepis nana, the dwarf tapeworm, is the smallest tapeworm to infect humans. This cestode belongs to a large family known as Hymenolepididae. The diagnostic features of this family are: scolex armed with one circlet of five hooks; one to three large testes and sacciform uterus

Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta for instance are parasites of rats that were reported to have infected over 175 million people worldwide (Crompton, 1999;Kim et al., 2014b;Macnish et al. Can't tell difference between two species. look at proglottids in feces. Treat Diphyllobothrium with. praziquantel or niclosamide Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Dipylidium caninum. Pseudophyllideans = Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and Diphyllobothrium latum Indirect life. Although infections with Hymenolepis sp. are clinically benign, the immunomodulatory interactions between host and parasite are largely unknown. Patient concerns: In this study we examined the intestinal mucosa of an adult asymptomatic patient harboring adult and larval dwarf tapeworms (Hymenolepis nana) who underwent surgery for an unrelated.

Video: Hymenolepis diminuta vs

Hymenolepis nana - Wikipedi

  1. uta is referred to as a rat tapeworm. H. nana frequently causes human infections and may also cause infections in rats, whereas H. di
  2. uta and H. microstoma in mice. Alghali ST, Grencis RK. Parasitology, 92 ( Pt 3):665-674, 01 Jun 1986 Cited by 3 articles | PMID: 373724
  3. uta but H. nana eggs are smaller and have polar filaments that originate from the inner membrane and extend out into the space between membranes (Pritt: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites Blog - Answer to Case 559 [Accessed 20 September 2019]

Cestodes - Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana

Interactions between tapeworm species in a single host offer intriguing opportunities for immunological studies that attempt to identify the mechanism(s) underlying protection against cestode infections. Mice that are immunized against Hymenolepis citelli infections were shown to be refractory to subsequent H. diminuta challenge infections Abstract: Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta are the most common cestodes in humans, domestic and wild rodents. Since isolates of H. nana species are morphologically identical, the way they can be reliably distinguished is comparing the parasite in each host using molecular techniques. In the current study, Mitochondrial Cytochrome fected with Hymenolepis. Thirty four (22.6%) presented H. Nana, one (0.7%) H. diminuta. The association between H. nana and school grade was significant (p > 0.027). The Odds Ratio (OR) of having H. nana and being undernourished was 1.4 (a 60% probability). Having H. nana and lacking basic services showed an OR of 2. Having H. nana Hymenolepiasis is infestation by one of two species of tapeworm: Hymenolepis nana or H. diminuta. Alternative names are dwarf tapeworm infection and rat tapeworm infection. The disease is a type of helminthiasis which is classified as a neglected tropical disease

Using Ouchterlony precipitin tests the cytoplasmic fluid of Hymenolepis nana[Vampirolepis nana] and H. diminuta showed 3 major shared antigens. 2 of these show identical specificity while the third exhibits common and uncommon determinants peculiar to H. nana. One of the common antigens shows β-naphthyl acetate esterase activity. Shared antigens are not immunogenic during infection of mice. Hymenolepis nana infections are much more common than Hymenolepis diminuta infections in humans. These infections used to be common in the southeastern United States, in crowded environments, and in people who were confined to institutions. However, the disease occurs throughout the world

Results : The mean concentrations of IFNγ, IL-12 and IL-5 in the sera of patients with H. nana infection were higher than the control group, but only the differences between the concentrations of IFNγ (p Conclusion : Results from the present study in [iji.sums.ac.ir 44 year old man with heavy Hymenolepis nana infection, possibly through organic foods (Korean J Parasitol 2014;52:85) Finding in a concentrated stool specimen (Pritt: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites Blog - Case of the Week 539 [Accessed 18 April 2019] Medical definition of Hymenolepis: a genus (the type of the family Hymenolepididae) of small taenioid tapeworms including numerous comparatively innocuous parasites of birds and mammals that usually require insect intermediate hosts but are able in some cases (as in H. nana of humans) to complete the life cycle in a single host by means of an oncosphere which hatches in the intestine, invades.

Hymenolepis nana: the dwarf or dwarf mouse tapeworm; a small tapeworm in humans, sometimes found in great numbers in the intestine; the cysticercoid can develop by two pathways: in the final host, with the egg from one human directly infective to another human host, in which both larval and adult stages occur, or through two hosts, an insect. Hymenolepis nana Dwarf tapeworm Definitive Host: Humans, rodents Most common tapeworm of humans in the world 1% rate of infection in the southern U.S. 97.3% rate of infection in Moscow, Russia Intermediate Host: Larval and adult beetles (but optional) Larval stage, cysticercoid, can develop in D.H. if it eats the egg

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then Hymenolepis microstoma was found to live for at least 728 days in a mouse, but an initial infection of 10 worms per mosue decreased exponentially for approximately the first 110 days to a level of 3-5 worms, after which little further loss occurred.. A primary infection of six H. microstoma, expelled with anthelmintic on day 21, strongly protected against a single worm H. diminuta challenge. 1 Hymenolepis nana Dwarf tapeworm Definitive Host: Humans, rodents Most common tapeworm of humans in the world 1% rate of infection in the southern U.S. 97.3% rate of infection in Moscow, Russia Intermediate Host: Larval and adult beetles (but optional) Larval stage, cysticercoid, can develop in D.H. if it eats the egg Der Zwergbandwurm (Hymenolepis nana, Syn.: Rodentolepis nana, Taenia nana) ist ein zu den Bandwürmern (Cestoda) gehörender Parasit, der Menschen und andere Primaten und Nagetiere als Endwirt befällt. Eine Besonderheit unter den Bandwürmern nimmt der Zwergbandwurm insofern ein, als er keinen Zwischenwirt benötigt, also ein direkter Übergang vom Menschen auf Nagetiere und umgekehrt.

Hymenolepis Tiny: Characteristics and Life Cycle Life

  1. u´ta, H. lanceola´ta, and H. na´na have been found in humans. Life cycle of Hymenolepis nana. From Mahon and Manuselis, 2000
  2. uta in the intermediate host are few and limited in scope. In this study, we developed a technique to rapidly collect morphological information on large numbers of parasites, and verified the utility of geometric models for simple and accurate estimation of cysticercoid size for quantitative studies. These models.
  3. Hymenolepis nana Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana is the most common cestode of humans, particularly in young children [1-3]. It is often referred to as the 'dwarf tapeworm' due to its small size, 2-4 cm long and only 1 mm wide [1] (Fig. 1). The adult tapeworm parasitizes the small intestine of humans, attaching to the mucosal surfac
  4. Nov 22, 2015 - (HI-men-OL-ep-is / dim-in-U-ta). See more ideas about medical laboratory science, medical laboratory, laboratory science

The key difference between Taenia solium and Taenia saginata is that the pigs are the intermediate hosts of Taenia solium, while the cattle are the intermediate hosts of Taenia saginata.. Tapeworms are parasitic segmented flatworms which are several meters long. They belong to genus Taenia.There are different Taenia species. Among them, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are medically important. For example, the well-studied tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, has a grain beetle, Tenebrio molitor, as its intermediate host which facilitates transmission to the rat definitive host. Changes in amino acid concentrations of female T. molitor grain beetles infected with the tapeworm, H. diminuta differ from the changes observed in males ( Hurd. Egg: Since the eggs of H. nana and H. diminuta look very much alike, identification to the visual identification of the polar filaments seen in H. nana eggs. The eggs are round to oval with a thin shell and measure 30 to 47 µm in diameter. The oncosphere has two polar thickenings from which arise polar filaments that lie between the oncosphere. Zwergbandwurm (Hymenolepis nana) Der Zwergbandwurm ist weltweit verbreitet. Infektionen treten vor allem in tropischen und subtropischen Regionen, aber auch in gemäßigten Klimazonen auf. Es wird eine Infektionsrate von 75 Millionen Menschen weltweit geschätzt, wobei Kinder besonders gefährdet sind Hymenolepis nana, the dwarf tapeworm, is a common cestode of mice, rats and primates including humans. The life cycle may be either direct or indirect. Nonimmune hosts can be autoinfected; eggs are produced, hatched and complete their life cycle within the intestine of a single host. The indirect cycle utilises arthropods as intermediate hosts (1)

Hymenolepis nana / Hymenolepis diminuta by Daniela Sot

  1. View Hymenolepis Nana Research Papers on Academia.edu for free
  2. uta eggs? Close. 2. Posted by 2 years ago. Archived. What are differences between Hymenolepis nana and hymenolepis di
  3. uta 13 6 4.3 2 8.7 4 Hymenolepis nana 46 Swiss Albino This diagnosis has been ascertained using polymer chain Reaction (PCR). The electrical relaying by using the aggarose gel at 0.8% has shown results of exa
  4. uta parasitize mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. These tapeworms are small and slender. Adults of H. nana are 1 mm wide and 25 to 40 mm in length, and adults of H. di
  5. uta) (see the area within the oval -polar filaments). ANSWER 15. C
  6. uta, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris, Strongyles and coccidia are the most common and are transmitted mainly through the rat excrement (Pakdel et al., 2013 Meshkekar et al., 2014). In addition, rats can carry ectoparasites such as fleas, flies, ticks and lice which can als
  7. uta (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the intermediate host Tribolium confusum,. [Marietta Voge; Donald Heyneman

Hymenolephys: Nana y Diminuta - SlideShar

  1. ate humans. It has a cosmopolitan allotment and is thought to be the most common tapeworm across the world. The infection is more commonly seen in offsprings however adults are also seen infected
  2. o acid sequences the genus Hydatigera, nine species were from the genus of the 12 protein genes between the H. nana and H. di
  3. uta observed by Rafique et al. (2009) ranged between 20-60% and is comparable with our findings. In contrast much lower infection rates with H. di
  4. uta infection of beetles is a popular model system to exa
  5. uta,a zoonotic parasite was deter

Presence of Hymenolepis nana and diminuta in rodents of

Thirty five children (23.3%) were infected with Hymenolepis. Thirty four (22.6%) presented H. Nana, one (0.7%) H. diminuta. The association between H. nana and school grade was significant (p > 0.027). The Odds Ratio (OR) of having H. nana and being undernourished was 1.4 (a 60% probability). Having H. nana and lacking basic services showed an. the prevalence, distribution and intensity of infestation of ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiura, hymenolepis nana, entebobius vermicularis and hymenolepis diminuta in fifty-six counties of florida 1. w. s. leathees, w. s. leathees search for other works by this author on: oxford academic Hymenolepis nana is the most common tapeworm in humans; prevalence rates of 0.1%-58% have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence in a health area of Southern Spain and identify the demographic variables potentially associated with increased rates of hymenolepiasis in this area Difference Between Parasite and Parasitoid • Categorized under Science | Difference Between Parasite and Parasitoid. A parasite is an organism that lives in or on a host but does not kill the host. Hisao, ed. Biology of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Elsevier, 2012 Analysis of parasite-host interactions can reveal the intricacies of immunity and identify ways to modulate immunopathological reactions. We assessed the ability of a phosphate-buffered saline-soluble extract of adult Hymenolepis diminuta to suppress macrophage (human THP-1 cell line, murine peritoneal macrophages) activity in vitro and the impact of treating mice with this extract on colitis.

Hymenolepis Nana - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Hymenolepis nana is the most common tapeworm in humans. It is also known as the dwarf tapeworm due to its particularly small size (adults are only 15-40 mm long). The disease, hymenolepiasis is found worldwide. In temperate zones children and institutionalized people are infected more often. The disease is somewhat common in the eastern Europe Figure 1. Figure 1. Radiographic and Pathological Features of Malignant Hymenolepis nana.. Anteroposterior and axial CT scans in Panels A and B, respectively, show the presence of lung nodules The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water

(PDF) Differential diagnosis and molecular

Mirdha BR, Samantray JC. Hymenolepis nana: a common cause of paediatric diarrhoea in urban slum dwellers in India. J Trop Pediatr. 2002 Dec. 48(6):331-4. . Chitchang S, Piamjinda T, Yodmani B, Radomyos P. Relationship between severity of the symptom and the number of Hymenolepis nana after treatment. J Med Assoc Thai. 1985 Aug. 68(8):423-6 Study 35 L 12 - Cestode III; Non-Taeniids I flashcards from Ellie H. on StudyBlue 26-jul-2018 - Explora el tablero de Henry Adrian Anchante Herrera Hymenolepis diminuta en Pinterest. Ver más ideas sobre microbiología, laboratorio de analisis clinicos, hematología

Hymenolepis Nana: Morphology and Life Cycl

Hymenolepis diminuta (rat tapeworm) is widespread worldwide, though in comparison to H. nana it is less frequent in humans (accidental host). The definite hosts, as well as the natural res-ervoir of H. diminuta, are small rodents. Literature on the subject reports that the predisposition to infestation with this tape En los humanos, las infecciones con Hymenolepis nana son mucho más comunes que las infecciones con Hymenolepis diminuta. Estas infecciones solían ser comunes en el sudeste de los Estados Unidos, en ambientes de hacinamiento y en personas recluidas en instituciones. Sin embargo, la enfermedad se presenta en todo el mundo Hymenolepis nana is a ubiquitous parasite, found throughout many developing and developed countries. Globally, the prevalence of H. nana is alarmingly high, with estimates of up to 75 million people infected. In Australia, the rates of infection have increased substantially in the last decade, from less than 20% in the early 1990's to 55 - 60% in these same communities today Dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana, previously known as Vampirolepis nana, Hymenolepis fraterna, and Taenia nana) is a cosmopolitan species that is one of the most common cestodes of humans in the world, especially among children.It can be found throughout the world, but is usually most common in temperate zones. It is the most common cestode of humans and is found wherever there are human.

Hymenolepis diminuta - Wikipedi

Hymenolepis nana egg: At first glance, the egg may even resemble a large amoeba cyst such as Entamoeba coli. Focusing through the cell will not reveal the 8 nuclei expected in E.coli. The size difference also should eliminate the cyst. (1000X, Nikon About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. STRADOWSKI M. 1989. Correlation between testes' position and genital pore placement in Hymenolepis diminuta. Acta Parasitologica Polonica 34: 145-153. - 1993. Variability of the position of organs in Hymenolepis diminuta tapeworm at different ages. Acta Parasitologica 38: 23-28. - 1994. Effects of inbreeding in Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) (19.1 %) had intestinal helminth infection, Hymenolepis nana being the most commonly diagnosed helminth with 19 cases (14 %). Of the 19 cases of hymenolepiasis, 17 were children and 2 were adults, the difference being statistically significant (2= 14.26 g.l.= 7 p< 0.05). No statistically significan Hymenolepis diminuta Introduction Hymenolepis diminuta is a small tapeworm commonly found in rats and mice. It has a world wide distribution in these hosts but is infrequently found in humans, with only sporadic cases being reported. Life cycle The life cycle of H.diminuta requires an intermediate arthropod host e.g. earwigs, larval fleas an

Hymenolepis nana is a ubiquitous parasite, found throughout many developing and developed countries. The ongoing controversy surrounding the taxonomy of H. nana has not yet been resolved and remains a point of difference between the taxonomic and medical literature.\ud \ud The epidemiology of infection with H. nana in Australian communities. Helminths and their products can suppress the host immune response to escape host defense mechanisms and establish chronic infections. Current studies indicate that macrophages play a key role in the immune response to pathogen invasion. They can be polarized into two distinct phenotypes: M1 and M2. The present paper examines the impact of the adult Hymenolepis diminuta (HD) tapeworm and its. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta determined by coprological technique in rodents was 35.4 percent and non-significant difference was observed in relation to different localities. The highest (48.0%) month-wise prevalence of H. diminuta was found during August whereas the lowest (28.0%) during January. The highest (45.4%) season-wise prevalence wa

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